Kazan, Russia

General Information

Regional secretariat

Historic and Architectural Complex of the Kazan Kremlin

Registration Year

2000

Historical function

Historical continuity and cultural diversity

Location and site

Built on an ancient site, the Kazan Kremlin dates from the Muslim period of the Golden Horde and the Kazan Khanate. It was conquered by Ivan the Terrible in 1552 and became the Christian See of the Volga Land. The only surviving Tatar fortress in Russia and an important place of pilgrimage, the Kazan Kremlin consists of an outstanding group of historic buildings dating from the 16th to 19th centuries, integrating remains of earlier structures of the 10th to 16th centuries.

Urban morphology

At present, the Kremlin includes several historical, architectural, and archaeological complexes, including: the fortifications, the Governor’s Palace and Syuyumbeki’s Tower, the Annunciation Cathedral, the Public Offices, the Saviour-Transfiguration Monastery, the Cadets’ School, and the Cannon Foundry. The archaeological layers range from 3 m to 8 m in depth.

Registration criteria

Criterion (ii): The Kazan Kremlin complex represents exceptional testimony of historical continuity and cultural diversity over a long period of time, resulting in an important interchange of values generated by the different cultures.

Criterion (iii): The historic citadel represents an exceptional testimony of the Khanate period and is the only surviving Tartar fortress with traces of the original town-planning conception.

Criterion (iv): The Kazan Kremlin and its key monuments represent an outstanding example of a synthesis of Tatar and Russian influences in architecture, integrating different cultures (Bulgar, the Golden Horde, Tatar, Italian, and Russian), as well as showing the impact of Islam and Christianity.

Historical reference

Built on a site inhabited since very ancient times, the Kazan Kremlin dates back to the Islamic period in the history of Volga Bulgaria, the Golden Horde and the Kazan Khanate. In the 10th-13th centuries, Kazan was a pre-Mongol Bulgar city with fortified trading settlement, surrounded by moats, ramparts and stockade. In the 12th century, a white stone fortress was constructed, and the city became an outpost on the northern border of Volga Bulgaria. In the 13th-16th centuries, the city developed in the framework of the Golden Horde and Kazan Khanate. In the first half of the 15th century, it became a capital of the state and an active political, military, administrative, commercial and cultural centre. It was conquered in 1552 by Ivan the Terrible and became the Christian See of the Volga Land and the East. The Kremlin, which in many respects kept the planning of an ancient Tatar fortress and which became an important centre of pilgrimage, consists of an outstanding group of historic buildings dating from the 16th to the 19th centuries, integrating remains of earlier structures of the 10th to the 16th centuries.

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Contact

Mr. Ilsour Metshin

Mayor
Kazan City Municipality

1, Kremlevskaya Street
Kazan, Russian Federation
420014

+7.843.299.18.18
[email protected]

Ms. Ludmila Andreeva

Deputy Chair
Kazan City Duma

1, Kremlevskaya str.
Kazan, Russian Federation
420014

+7.843.2991830
[email protected]

Ms. Zylia Valeeva

Director
Kazan Kremlin Museum (World Heritage Site)

Doorway 2 Kazan Kremlin
Kazan, Russian Federation
420014

+7 843 2927883
[email protected]

Ms. Daria Sannikova

Director
Kazan Committee for Tourism

+7-9372-802-182
[email protected]