Icherisheher, Azerbaijan

General Information

Administrative status

Historical and architectural core of Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan

Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower

Registration Year


Historical function

Cultural and defensive


Built on a site inhabited since the Palaeolithic period, the Walled City of Baku reveals evidence of Zoroastrian, Sasanian, Arabic, Persian, Shirvani, Ottoman, and Russian presence in cultural continuity. The Inner City (Icheri Sheher) has preserved much of its 12th-century defensive walls. The 12th-century Maiden Tower (Giz Galasy) is built over earlier structures dating from the 7th to 6th centuries BC, and the 15th-century Shirvanshahs’ Palace is one of the pearls of Azerbaijan’s architecture.


Rising from the south shore of the Apsheron Peninsular at the western edge of the Caspian Sea, the Walled City of Baku was founded on a site inhabited since the Palaeolithic period. The city reveals, along with the dominant Azerbaijani element, evidence of Zoroastrian, Sassanian, Arabic, Persian, Shirvani, Ottoman, and Russian presence in cultural continuity. The inner city (Icherisheher) has preserved much of its 12th-century defensive walls, which define the character of the property. The most ancient monument of Icherisheher is the Maiden Tower – symbol of the city of Baku. Some evidence suggests that the construction of the Tower might have been as early as the 7th-6th centuries BC. Another monument of universal value, one of the pearls of Azerbaijan’s architecture is the 12th- to 15th-century Shirvanshahs’ Palace, located at the highest point of Icherisheher. Within the Palace complex are the Divankhana (reception hall) or, as some researchers believe, the Tomb of Shah, the residential building of Shirvanshahs, the remains of Key-Kubad Mosque, the Tomb of Seyid Yahya Bakuvi, Murad’s Gate (the only monument of the 16th century), the Tomb of Shirvanshahs’ Family, the Shah Mosque and the Palace bath-house. Earlier monuments of Icherisheher include the Mohammed Mosque, together with the adjacent minaret built in 1078, and remains of the 9th- to 10th-century mosque near the Maiden Tower.

There are also numerous historical-architectural monuments of the medieval period such as caravanserais, hamams (bath-houses), mosques and residential buildings of the 18th to 20th centuries located within the property.


The magnificence of Icherisheher lies in the combination of its distinct architectural monuments and its historically composed architectural spatial planning with original street views, which have merged into a single entity to reflect its long history and the melding of cultures that have influenced its development over the past nine centuries. Icherisheher is still a living, vibrant city with residential areas housing local communities.


Criterion (iv): The Walled City of Baku represents an outstanding and rare example of an historic urban ensemble and architecture with influence from Zoroastrian, Sassanian, Arabic, Persian, Shirvani, Ottoman, and Russian cultures.



15 November 2018

46th Meeting of the Board of Directors

Icherisheher, Azerbaijan


Mr. Asgar Alakbarov

Head of Administration
State Historical and Architectural Reserve Icherisheher

Asaf Zeynalli 20/85
Baku, Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan

(+994 12) 492 1175
[email protected]

Mr. Javid Kazimov

Scientific and Cultural Centre of the State Department of the Historical and Architectural Reserve of Icherisheher

Baku, V. Mammadov 16
Baku, Azerbaijan

[email protected]

Mr. Elsevar Mammadov

Head of International Relations Department
Administration of State Historical-Architectural Reserve "Icherisheher"

[email protected]

Ms. Zeynab Jahan

PR Manager
State Administration of Historical-Architectural Reserve "Icherisheher"

[email protected]

Ms. Aygul Ismayilova

Specialist/Tourism Department
Scientific and Cultural Center of the State Historical-Architectural Reserve “Icherisheher”

[email protected]