Ancient City of Aleppo
Industry, trade and defense.
Location and siteSituated between the Mediterranean and Mesopotamia and between the Orontes and the Euphrates Rivers, Aleppo (Halab) is in the northern part of the Fertile Crescent. At a distance of 350 km. north of Damascus and at the western extremity of the Silk Road, it was at the crossroads of the caravan routes.
Inside Aleppo's seven gates is an urban grid of Hellenistic inspiration. The souk spreads out along the rectilinear artery connecting the Anticoch gate to the foot of the citadel, and the Great Mosque was constructed on the site of the agora. Throughout the city, through streets and dead-end streets are laid out according to a hierarchy of public and private areas. New openings between the two were made later, and some of these are well-integrated into the ensemble.
The city of Aleppo is built around a large citadel that underwent reconstruction in the 13th century A.D. Its Great Mosque, founded in the 7th century and reconstructed in the 12th century, is famous for its plan, which was modelled on the Great Mosque in Damascus. The urban fabric is made up of traditional dwellings of high architectural quality and very often clad in grey stone, sprinkled with mosques and madrassas, palaces, hammams and caravan enclosures.
Criteria III and IV are cited without details.
- In the 18th century B.C., Aleppo was the capital of an important kingdom. During the 16th century B.C., it was captured by the Hittites from Anatolia as part of their raid of Babylonia around 1595 B.C.
- Aleppo, which was annexed to Assyria in 738 B.C. and then incorporated into the Seleucid Empire after the dealth of Alexander The Great, came under Roman rule in 65 B.C.
- Following the Arab Conquest, Aleppo enjoyed a period of prosperity under the Umayyad Dynasty (650-750). Like Damascus, Aleppo turned to the Orient.
- During the 10th century, Aleppo experienced its golden age as the prosperous capital of the independent Hamdanid principality. It played an important role during the Crusades.
- After being in the control of several different dynasties, Aleppo was disabled by the Mongolians in 1260. It developed its trade under the Mamelukes and was subjected to Ottoman rule in 1516.
|Eng. Mohammed Ayman Al-Hallaq|
Ministère de l'Administration Locale Conseil d'Alep
00963 21 3624216