Guadalajara

Registered Sector: 
Hospicio Cabañas, Guadalajara
Location and site: 

Located in Guadalajara in the central region of western Mexico, Hospicio Cabañas was founded at the beginning of the 19th century to provide care and shelter to the needy including orphans, elderly, handicapped and chronic invalids. Architect Manuel Tolsá, designed a predominantly Neoclassical complex on a monumental scale, covering 2.34 hectares. Despite its size, the hospice’s uniqueness relates primarily to the simplicity of its design, specifically its dimensions and the harmony achieved between the buildings and the outdoor spaces. The overall composition is formed by a rectangular plan measuring 164 metres by 145 metres and contains a complex of single-story buildings laid out around a series of twenty-three courtyards varying in size and characteristics.

Historical Function: 
Social
Administrative Status: 
Capital of the Mexican state of Jalisco
Historical Reference: 

The Hospicio Cabañas was built at the beginning of the 19th century to provide care and shelter for the disadvantaged – orphans, old people, the handicapped and chronic invalids. This remarkable complex, which incorporates several unusual features designed specifically to meet the needs of its occupants, was unique for its time. It is also notable for the harmonious relationship between the open and built spaces, the simplicity of its design, and its size. In the early 20th century, the chapel was decorated with a superb series of murals, now considered some of the masterpieces of Mexican art. They are the work of José Clemente Orozco, one of the greatest Mexican muralists of the period.

Urban Morphology: 

The hospice’s founder, Bishop Cabañas commissioned a design that responded to its social and economic requirements through an outstanding solution of great subtlety and humanity. The single-storey scale, covered passageways between buildings, and arcades traversing most courtyards focused on the comfort of its residents allowing them to move freely. The light and air provided by the open spaces were intended to promote healing. In addition, it was one of Bishop Cabañas’ objectives to educate residents through the learning of a trade. For example, the hospice’s corridors provided space for one of Guadalajara’s first printing press workshops and throughout the 19th century innumerable texts were published from this location.

The exception to the complex’s uniform height of 7.5 metres is found in along its central axis with the chapel and kitchen. The kitchen is topped by a saucer dome and small lantern. It is the chapel, however, that is the visually dominant feature of the hospice with its imposing dome rising 32.5 metres.

Registration Criteria: 

Criterion (i): The Hospicio Cabañas is a unique architectural complex designed to respond to social and economic requirements for housing the sick, the aged, orphans, and the needy with an outstanding solution of great subtlety and humanity. The murals painted in the chapel by José Clemente Orozco are considered great masterpieces of Mexican art.

Criterion (ii): The group of paintings in the chapel of the Hospicio, in particular the allegory El Hombre de Fuego (The Man of Fire) is considered to be one of the masterpieces of 20th century mural painting and had profound cultural influence beyond the American continent.

Criterion (iii): This is a unique building dedicated to public welfare assistance and speaks of the exceptional humanitarian spirit of its promoter and producer Bishop Juan Ruiz de Cabañas.

Criterion (iv): The Hospicio Cabañas is an outstanding work of renowned architect Manuel Tolsá, built predominantly in the Neoclassical style, that provided a completely different architectural solution to the conventional design of its time. The restriction of one level to facilitate movement of patients, large open spaces with natural lighting and ventilation to promote healing, and covered walkways between the different modules of the building, whose scale, covering 2.34 hectares, was at that time and still is today considered monumental.

Gongju

Registered Sector: 
Baekje Historic Areas
Location and site: 

Located in the mountainous mid-western region of the Republic of Korea, this property comprises eight archaeological sites dating from 475 to 660 CE, including the Gongsanseong fortress and royal tombs at Songsan-ri related to the capital, Ungjin (present day Gongju), the Busosanseong Fortress and Gwanbuk-ri administrative buildings, the Jeongnimsa Temple, the royal tombs in Neungsan-ri and the Naseong city wall related to the capital, Sabi (now Buyeo), the royal palace at Wanggung-ri and the Mireuksa Temple in Iksan related to the secondary Sabi capital. Together, these sites represent the later period of the Baekje Kingdom – one of the three earliest kingdoms on the Korean peninsula (18 BCE to 660 CE) - during which time they were at the crossroads of considerable technological, religious (Buddhist), cultural and artistic exchanges between the ancient East Asian kingdoms in Korea, China and Japan.

Historical Function: 
Technological, religious, cultural and artistic
Administrative Status: 
City in South Chungcheong province
Historical Reference: 

Located in the mountainous mid-western region of the Republic of Korea, the remains of three capital cities collectively represent the later period of the Baekje Kingdom as it reached its peak in terms of cultural development involving frequent communication with neighbouring regions. The Baekje lasted 700 years from 18 BCE to 660 CE and was one of the three earliest kingdoms on the Korean peninsula. The Baekje Historic Areas serial property comprises eight archaeological sites dating from 475-660 CE including the Gongsanseong fortress and royal tombs at Songsan-ri related to the Ungjin capital Gongju; the Archaeological Site in Gwanbuk-ri and Busosanseong Fortress, Jeongnimsa Temple Site, royal tombs in Neungsan-ri and Naseong city wall related to the Sabi capital Buyeo; the Archaeological Site in Wanggung-ri and the Mireuksa Temple Site in Iksan related to the secondary Sabi capital. Together these sites testify to the adoption by the Baekje of Chinese principles of city planning, construction technology, arts and religion; their refinement by the Baekje and subsequent distribution to Japan and East Asia.

Registration Criteria: 

Criterion (ii): The archaeological sites and architecture of the Baekje Historic Areas exhibit the interchange between the ancient East Asian kingdoms in Korea, China and Japan in the development of construction techniques and the spread of Buddhism.

Criterion (iii): The setting of the capital cities, Buddhist temples and tombs, architectural features and stone pagodas of the Baekje Historic Areas contribute in forming exceptional testimony to the unique culture, religion and artistry of the kingdom of Baekje.

Buyeo

Registered Sector: 
Baekje Historic Areas
Location and site: 

Located in the mountainous mid-western region of the Republic of Korea, this property comprises eight archaeological sites dating from 475 to 660 CE, including the Gongsanseong fortress and royal tombs at Songsan-ri related to the capital, Ungjin (present day Gongju), the Busosanseong Fortress and Gwanbuk-ri administrative buildings, the Jeongnimsa Temple, the royal tombs in Neungsan-ri and the Naseong city wall related to the capital, Sabi (now Buyeo), the royal palace at Wanggung-ri and the Mireuksa Temple in Iksan related to the secondary Sabi capital. Together, these sites represent the later period of the Baekje Kingdom – one of the three earliest kingdoms on the Korean peninsula (18 BCE to 660 CE) - during which time they were at the crossroads of considerable technological, religious (Buddhist), cultural and artistic exchanges between the ancient East Asian kingdoms in Korea, China and Japan.

Historical Function: 
Technological, religious, cultural and artistic
Administrative Status: 
County in South Chungcheong Province
Historical Reference: 

Located in the mountainous mid-western region of the Republic of Korea, the remains of three capital cities collectively represent the later period of the Baekje Kingdom as it reached its peak in terms of cultural development involving frequent communication with neighbouring regions. The Baekje lasted 700 years from 18 BCE to 660 CE and was one of the three earliest kingdoms on the Korean peninsula. The Baekje Historic Areas serial property comprises eight archaeological sites dating from 475-660 CE including the Gongsanseong fortress and royal tombs at Songsan-ri related to the Ungjin capital Gongju; the Archaeological Site in Gwanbuk-ri and Busosanseong Fortress, Jeongnimsa Temple Site, royal tombs in Neungsan-ri and Naseong city wall related to the Sabi capital Buyeo; the Archaeological Site in Wanggung-ri and the Mireuksa Temple Site in Iksan related to the secondary Sabi capital. Together these sites testify to the adoption by the Baekje of Chinese principles of city planning, construction technology, arts and religion; their refinement by the Baekje and subsequent distribution to Japan and East Asia.

Registration Criteria: 

Criterion (ii): The archaeological sites and architecture of the Baekje Historic Areas exhibit the interchange between the ancient East Asian kingdoms in Korea, China and Japan in the development of construction techniques and the spread of Buddhism.

Criterion (iii): The setting of the capital cities, Buddhist temples and tombs, architectural features and stone pagodas of the Baekje Historic Areas contribute in forming exceptional testimony to the unique culture, religion and artistry of the kingdom of Baekje.

Goris City

Registered Sector: 
Historic center - The old town
Location and site: 

Goris is a town in the southern Syunik region of Armenia. Goris is located in the north-eastern part of the Syunik region, on the intersection of Yerevan-Artsakh and Yerevan-Meghri-Iran interstate highways. Located in the valley of the river Goris (Vararakn) it is 235 km away from the Armenia capital Yerevan and 67 km from the regional center Kapan. The town has an average elevation of 1398 metres above sea level.

Historical Function: 
Commercial
Administrative Status: 
Town in the Syunik Marz of the Republic of Armenia
Historical Reference: 
  • The humankind settled in Goris since the Stone Age. Goris was first mentioned in the history by the Urartian period. King Rusa I (8th century B.C.) left a cuneiform, where he mentioned that among the 23 countries conquered by him, "Goristsa" country was one of them. The scientists suppose that it is the same Goris.
  • During the Middle Ages, the town-settlement was situated in the eastern part of the present Goris, on the left bank of Goris river. It was called old Goris and coincided with one of the villages of Goru and Goraik mentioned by Stepanos Orbelyan (13th century).
  • The current spelling of the name was first mentioned in 1624, in a handwriting by Barsegh Yerets. In 17-18th centuries princes Melik Husenyans ruled Goris. In the beginning of the 19th century, on 13 October 1813 according to the "Gyulistan agreement", Goris fell under the domination of Emperial Russia. In 1870, the modern-day town of Goris was founded to become the centre of Zangezour province within the Russian Empire. In 1876, the new town of Goris was founded near the Old Goris with the initiative of the head of "Starastky province" and recommendation of Prince Manuchar-Bek Melik Husenyan and the plan was designed by a German architect.  At the end of the 19th century the economical and cultural life of the town was rather improved.
  • After the fall of the First Republic of Armenia in 1920, the 2nd Pan-Zangezurian congress held in Tatev on 26 April 1921, announced the independence of the self-governing regions of Daralakyaz (Vayots Dzor), Zangezur, and Mountainous Artsakh, under the name of theRepublic of Mountainous Armenia (Lernahaystani Hanrapetutyun), with Goris as a de facto capital city.
  • The stone-pyramids of Old Kores located to the east of the modern town, is one of the most attractive sites in Goris. The old town is home to the 4th-century basilica of Surp Hripsimé. The basilica has been renovated during the 16th century. However it was closed during the Soviet period until its major renovation in 2010. Finally, it was reopened for the public in October 2013.
Urban Morphology: 

The most peculiar feature of Goris is the uniquely styled one-two storey houses, with stone fences and arched gates. Throughout its history Goris has accumulated a large number of cultural heritage monuments: worship and defence structures, administrative, private and public buildings. The most valuable part of it is the Old town and the historical core of current the town centre, where the unique architecture is harmoniously related to the surrounding natural and urban landscape. The late 19th and early 20th century constructions in the town are highly ranked among the most valuable urban development history objects in Armenia.

XX Anniversary of the National Association of Mexican World Heritage Cities

The National Association of Mexican World Heritage Cities was created in 1996 with the objective of uniting efforts to work for the protection, development and promotion of Mexican cities recognized as "World Heritage" by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESC

Youth on the Trail of World Heritage - Students from Cordoba visit Ubeda & Baeza

As part of the program Youth on the Trail of World Heritage (YTWH), 2015-2016 edition, students of IES Blas Infante of Cordoba, who unfortunately could not visit their twins in Oaxaca (Mexico), had however the opportunity to visit two other World Heritage cities in Spain: Ubeda and Baeza