English translation unavailable for Fez.

Évora

Registered Sector: 
Historic Centre of Évora
Location and site: 
A city of Portugal's interior, Evora is located at the intersection of three river basins. About 100 km. east of Lisbon, it is constructed high above the surrounding plain.
Historical Function: 
Religion and culture.
Administrative Status: 
Chief city of the district and capital of Alentejo.
Historical Reference: 
  • Evora, an important Roman city called Liberalitas Julia, was a terrestrial crossroads of the imperial province of Lusitania.
  • During the barbarian invasions, Evora was under Visigoth rule. It occupied a space defined by a Roman enclosure that had been modified.
  • Following the conquest of the city by the Muslims in 715 A.D., the fortifications were improved.
  • The Reconquest of the Christians in 1165 led to the integration of Evora into the independent kingdom of Portugal. This marked the beginning of a period of development which continued until the 16th century. Under the Aviz Dynasty (1385-1580), Evora became the second most important city of the kingdom after Lisbon. In the 16th century, Evora reached its golden era as witnessed by a number of architectural realisations.
  • This was also the beginning of great Portuguese maritime expeditions, when the ports of call on the world's maritime route - Madeira, the Azores, and the Cape Verde Islands - were discovered.
  • In the 17th century, a Vauban-type fortification was constructed. In the 18th century, the Company of Jesus, which had spread intellectual and religious enlightenment since the 16th century, was expelled, and Evora went into decline.
Urban Morphology: 

The city plan, which became fixed in principle during the16th century, developed in a radial fashion around the summit of the hill. At the limit of the old centre, which had an irregular layout, some of the city squares (Giraldo and the Moura Gate) provided points of departure for the urban axes that gave structure to the ensemble and extended out into the region. Between these axes, the urban area is crowded by networks of narrow streets, most often in a straight line, with varied orientation from one ensemble to another. Three successive fortifications (Roman, medieval and Vauban) enclosed the city.

Among the walls and the vestiges of walls, which are bordered with gardens, low white dwellings with tile roofs (or a terrace) ensure a unified architectural ensemble; this is enhanced by cast ironwork and azulejos. Numerous palaces and convents (constructed of granite in certain cases) of Manueline inspiration date to the 15th century. The 16th century, however, witnessed the construction of great works of architecture and urban planning, such as the aqueduct which dates to 1537 and numerous fountains.

Registration Criteria: 

"Evora is the finest example of a city of the golden age of Portugal after the destruction of Lisbon by the earthquake of 1755." (IV) "The cityscape of Evora alone can enable us to understand the influence exerted by Portuguese architecture in Brazil, in sites such as Salvador de Bahia (included on the World Heritage List in 1985)." (II)

Dubrovnik

Registered Sector: 
Old City of Dubrovnik
Location and site: 

Near the Balkans and opposite the Italian Peninsula, the city on the Dalmation coast opens onto the Adriatic and the Mediterranean Seas. Its port, sheltered from winds, is well protected.
 

Historical Function: 
Trade (maritime).
Historical Reference: 
  • Dubrovnik was originally a fortified island occupied by Latin natives. An arm of the sea separated it from a second centre, Raguse, which was Slavic and antagonistic. Navigation and trade were its most important activities.
  • In the 13th century, Raguse and Dubrovnik were joined. The arm of the sea then became the principal artery of the new city. The small Republic of Dubrovnik-Raguse took the form of a medieval city and was subjected to rigorous, premature and exceptional urban planning. The urban centre of the new republic was to be imposing. Its fleet was powerful as intense trade activity took place between Western Europe and the Balkans. On the seas, Dubrovnik rivalled Venice.
  • In the 14th and 15th centuries, this maritime capital multiplied its architectural achievements, and the urban plan was established in the 16th century. For the Serbs, Dubrovnik opened the door to Latin culture and Western Europe.
  • At the peak of its prosperity, in 1667, Dubrovnik was devastated by an earthquake. Its most essential original structures remained or were reconstructed. At the beginning of the 19th century, it was occupied by the troops of Napoleon I, and lost its independence.
Urban Morphology: 

Dubrovnik, which appears to advance into the sea, is built at the foot of Mount San Sergio. Inside its 13th-century rampart, its Baroque-inspired plan offers perspective views. From the mountain it is possible to see parallel streets transform into stairs to access the terraces of the city. Towards the sea, the grid becomes less regular and opens up as it widens. The transversal artery, which runs parallel to the sea, becomes narrower from east to west (the direction in which the city developed) and exploits perspective views and distance.

Stone and brick work together to form a dense architectural fabric. Inside the massive fortification walls, large public, civic and religious buildings date to the Renaissance. By their monumentality, they evoke the prosperous times of the small republic. The works of sculpture, in harmony with the urban landscape, remind us of the cultural enlightenment enjoyed by Dubrovnik.

Registration Criteria: 

Dubrovnik illustrates the willingness to create an urban landscape conceived like a work of art. As a museum-city, it conserves both monuments constructed by great architects and a large number of dwellings of obvious architectural merit. This homogeneity in the quality of the built form is without equal elsewhere. (I) The city presents a unique testimony to the civilisation of the Republic of Raguse. (III) The ramparts represent a remarkable effort to adapt its urban medieval enclosure to progress in the field of artillery and constitute one of the great references for 15th-century fortification history. (IV)

English translation unavailable for Damascus.

Dakar

Registered Sector: 
Island of Gorée
Location and site: 
Sur la côte sénégalaise, l'île de Gorée est située face à Dakar et au milieu de sa rade. Son port aux très bonnes conditions de mouillage est associé à un site défensif. L'île a été sur la route des Indes.
Historical Function: 
Comptoir de traite des esclaves.
Historical Reference: 
  • À l'époque des grandes découvertes, la traite des esclaves déjà pratiquée au Moyen Âge à l'échelle du Sahara et de la Méditerranée prend une importance accrue dans le cadre des économies coloniales. C'est l'instauration d'un trafic triangulaire entre l'Europe, l'Afrique et le nouveau monde. Gorée est le plus grand comptoir de traite d'esclaves de la côte africaine.
  • En 1444, l'île de Gorée est prise par les Portugais qui s'y maintiennent jusqu'en 1595. Dès le XVe siècle, des comptoirs sont établis sur la côte. En 1530, le Royaume possède sa première plantation de canne à sucre au Brésil; et les nouveaux colons font venir des Noirs des comptoirs africains.
  • L'île de Gorée est ravie aux Portugais par les Hollandais, puis elle est prise et reprise alternativement par Français et Anglais. D'une manière générale, les coloniaux, uniquement préoccupés par la traite des esclaves, sont restés sur la côte.
  • Au Congrès de Vienne en 1815, la traite des esclaves est officiellement abolie. Selon une estimation modeste, 11 millions de Noirs auraient quitté la côte africaine entre 1451 et 1870.
Urban Morphology: 

L'île mesure 900 m du nord au sud et toute son étendue est aménagée. Quadrillée en son centre par des rues qui se croisent à angle droit, le tracé s'adapte au découpage de la partie plus étroite de l'île. Rues de sable borées de végétation tropicale, presque toutes elles mènent à la mer: rues des Dongeons, des Batteries, des Gourmettes.

Forts et batteries (Tourelles ruinées du Castel, Batterie nord, Fort d'Estée, Fort St-François ruiné), bâtiments officiels et religieux (églises, mosquée, palais, hôpital) occupent des lieux choisis. Toutefois, ce sont les maisons aux toits de tuiles, aux ocres jaunis et aux balcons peints qui composent le paysage de l'île. Remontant au XVIIIe siècle, elles sont construites à deux niveaux dont le premier (sous-sol ou rez-de-chaussée), sombre et réduit, fut le lieu des esclaves. Le second, résidence des maîtres, est entouré de galeries à arcades, de fenêtres à balcons et de colonnades néo-classiques. À ces architectures chargées de symboles s'ajoute une Maison des Esclaves, musée dont la porte étroite s'ouvre sur la mer.

Registration Criteria: 

«Gorée est associée à l'histoire de la traite négrière [...] et constitue un tragique mémento de ce crime non seulement pour les Africains, mais pour l'humanité toute entière. Le Sénégal moderne entend toutefois que l'île devienne un sanctuaire de la réconciliation des hommes par le dialogue, la confrontation des idées généreuses et le pardon et ce programme perspectif n'est pas moins digne d'attention de la part du Comité du Patrimoine mondial» (VI).

English translation unavailable for Cuzco.
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English translation unavailable for Cáceres.
English translation unavailable for Budapest.
English translation unavailable for Brasilia.